French horn (from German Waldhorn – “forest horn”, Italian corno, English french horn, French cor) – a brass wind musical instrument of a bass-tenor register. It came from a hunting signal horn; it entered the orchestra in the middle of the 17th century. Until the 1830s, like other copper instruments, it had no valves and was a natural instrument with a limited sound scale.
Among its closest neighbors, brass instruments, the horn stands out for its particularly melodious, velvety and warm timbre, and its thoughtfully lyrical sound. Its distant predecessor was a hunting horn, as evidenced by the name itself: translated from German “horn” means “forest horn”.
Hence the first impression of the sound of the horn is associated with the listener with unlimited distances, nature, forests and fields. Continue reading
Impressionism (French: impressionnisme, from impression – impression), the direction in art of the last third of the XIX – beginning of XX centuries.
The application of the term “impressionism” to music is largely arbitrary – musical impressionism does not constitute a direct analogy to impressionism in painting and does not coincide chronologically with it (its heyday was the 90s of the 19th century and the 1st decade of the 20th century).
Impressionism arose in France when a group of artists – C. Monet, C. Pissarro, A. Sis-lei, E. Degas, O. Renoir and others – made their original paintings at Parisian exhibitions of the 70s. Continue reading
Tubes with single or double tongues are known, apparently, from ancient times. The oldest surviving instruments of this type are two silver pipes found in the Sumerian royal cemetery in Ur and dating to 2800 BC. These tubes paired and had double tongues. Later, similar tubes made of metal, wood or bone appeared in Egypt, Asia Minor, Greece, India and the Far East. The main wind instrument in Ancient Greece was Avlos (the ancient Roman name is Tibia), often incorrectly called a flute. It consisted of two tubes with double tongues, which were played simultaneously, with one of the tubes giving a monotonous bass accompaniment for the other. A similar bourdon accompaniment has become a distinctive feature of another instrument with a double tongue – bagpipes. Ancient pipes became the forerunners of reed instruments of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Continue reading
Oboe (from French hautbois, literally “tall tree”, English, German and Italian oboe) is a woodwind musical instrument of the soprano register of the symphony orchestra, which is a conical tube with a valve system and a double cane (tongue). Oboe acquired a modern look in the first half of the 18th century. The instrument has a melodious, but somewhat nasal, and in the upper register – a sharp timbre.
The oboe can also be a member of a brass band, in various chamber ensembles. By the sound of “la” oboe, an orchestra is tuned.
Oboe device is complicated. The sound in it occurs as a result of the vibration of two connected reed plates, called a cane, which is mounted on a metal tube – a pin and tightly tied with a thread. The diameter of the pin and the size of the reed plates affect the structure of the instrument, its timbre and sound quality. Continue reading
Scherzo (Italian scherzo – literally “a joke”) is a playful character, can be part of a symphony, sonata, quartet or an independent musical piece in a lively, fast pace, with acutely characteristic rhythmic and harmonic turns, in three parts.
In the music of the XVI-XVII centuries – a small instrumental piece. So called canzonetta (songs) for one or several singers with humorous verses.
Such scherzo were written by C. Monteverdi, A. Brunelli, B. Marini. Since the beginning of the XVII century. The word “scherzo” also denoted plays for various instruments, close to capriccio (a free-form instrumental piece in a brilliant virtuoso style) with their bizarre change of episodes and moods. Continue reading