Trumpet is one of the oldest musical instruments. Mention of the oldest instruments of this type dates back to about 3600 BC. e.
Pipes existed in many civilizations – in Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient China, etc., and were used as signaling instruments. The pipe played such a role for many centuries until the 17th century.
In the Middle Ages, trumpeters were obligatory members of the army, only they could quickly transmit an order from the commander to other parts of the army at a distance with a signal. The art of playing the trumpet was considered “elite”, he was taught only by specially selected people. In peacetime, trumpets sounded at festive processions, knightly tournaments, in large cities there was a position of “tower” trumpeters, which informed of the arrival of a high-ranking person, the change of time of day (thus playing the role of a kind of clock), approaching the city of the enemy army and other events .
At the turn of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, due to the improvement of pipe manufacturing technology, interest in these tools increased significantly. In the Baroque era, composers began to include trumpet parts in the orchestra. Appear virtuoso performers who possessed the art of “clarinos” (the performance of a diatonic scale in the uppercase of the trumpet by blowing). The Baroque period can rightfully be called the “golden age of the natural pipe.” With the advent of classicism and romanticism, the fundamental principle of which was melodism, natural pipes, unable to perform melodic lines, go by the wayside and are used only in tutti in orchestras to perform the main stages of the scale.
The valve mechanism, invented in the 1830s and giving the pipe a chromatic scale, was not widely used at first, since not all chromatic sounds were intonationally clear and the same in timbre. The upper voice in the brass group since that time has increasingly become entrusted to the cornet, a related instrument with a softer timbre and more advanced technical capabilities. Cornets (along with trumpets) were permanent instruments of the orchestra until the beginning of the 20th century, when improving the design of instruments and improving the skill of the trumpeters virtually eliminated the problem of fluency and timbre, and the cornets disappeared from the orchestra. Nowadays, orchestral parts of cornets are performed, as a rule, on trumpets, although sometimes the original instrument is also used.
Nowadays, the trumpet is widely used as a solo instrument in symphony and wind orchestras, as well as in jazz, funk, ska and other genres.
Among the outstanding solo trumpeters of various genres are Maurice Andre, Louis Armstrong, Dizzy Gillespie, Timothy Dokshitser, Miles Davis, Winton Marsalis, Sergey Nakaryakov, George Orvid, Eddie Calvert.