Trumpet is one of the oldest musical instruments. Mention of the oldest instruments of this type dates back to about 3600 BC. e.
Pipes existed in many civilizations – in Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient China, etc., and were used as signaling instruments. The pipe played such a role for many centuries until the 17th century.
In the Middle Ages, trumpeters were obligatory members of the army, only they could quickly transmit an order from the commander to other parts of the army at a distance with a signal. The art of playing the trumpet was considered “elite”, he was taught only by specially selected people. In peacetime, trumpets sounded at festive processions, knightly tournaments, in large cities there was a position of “tower” trumpeters, which informed of the arrival of a high-ranking person, the change of time of day (thus playing the role of a kind of clock), approaching the city of the enemy army and other events . Continue reading
French horn (from German Waldhorn – “forest horn”, Italian corno, English french horn, French cor) – a brass wind musical instrument of a bass-tenor register. It came from a hunting signal horn; it entered the orchestra in the middle of the 17th century. Until the 1830s, like other copper instruments, it had no valves and was a natural instrument with a limited sound scale.
Among its closest neighbors, brass instruments, the horn stands out for its particularly melodious, velvety and warm timbre, and its thoughtfully lyrical sound. Its distant predecessor was a hunting horn, as evidenced by the name itself: translated from German “horn” means “forest horn”.
Hence the first impression of the sound of the horn is associated with the listener with unlimited distances, nature, forests and fields. Continue reading
Scherzo (Italian scherzo – literally “a joke”) is a playful character, can be part of a symphony, sonata, quartet or an independent musical piece in a lively, fast pace, with acutely characteristic rhythmic and harmonic turns, in three parts.
In the music of the XVI-XVII centuries – a small instrumental piece. So called canzonetta (songs) for one or several singers with humorous verses.
Such scherzo were written by C. Monteverdi, A. Brunelli, B. Marini. Since the beginning of the XVII century. The word “scherzo” also denoted plays for various instruments, close to capriccio (a free-form instrumental piece in a brilliant virtuoso style) with their bizarre change of episodes and moods. Continue reading